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The National Education Policy (NEP) covers almost every aspect of education, from elementary to higher education, in both rural and urban India. The first NEP was promoted by then-Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in 1968, the second by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1986, and the third by current Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2022. Founded on the five pillars—that is, access, affordability, equity, quality, and accountability—the NEP provides for reforms at all levels of education, from school to higher education. With the aim of developing India into a noble nation of knowledge and a superpower, the policy emphasises research, innovation, and quality. "Educate, Encourage, and Enlighten" has been the policy's motto.

Union Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman has stated in her budget speech that a central university will be set up in Leh to establish proper access to higher education. She has allocated funds of Rs. 50,000 crore for the National Research Foundation and Rs. 40 crore for Ekalavya schools.

Certain changes that have been brought about in the sphere of undergraduate education are:

Ø  Undergraduate degrees will have a span of four years.

Ø  Undergraduate degrees will be flexible, holistic, and multi-disciplinary.

Ø  Multiple exit options with appropriate certifications will be available at each exit point.

1)      After completing one year in a vocational or professional field, certificates will be available.

2)      Diploma will be awarded after completing its two years course.

3)      Bachelor’s degree will be offered after completing its three years course.

     The following are noteworthy points in the category of higher education:

Ø  Post-graduate courses will have a span of one to two years.

Ø  There will be no M.Phil. programmes.

Ø  The college affiliation system will be gradually phased out in 15 years.

Ø  Every college will develop into either a constituent college of a university or into an autonomous degree granting institution.

Ø For all Higher Education courses (except for legal and medical courses), there will be a new umbrella regulatory body.

Ø  An Academic Bank of Credit will be formed to ensure smoother transfer between institutions.

Ø All standalone technical universities, legal universities, agricultural universities, and health science universities will become multi-disciplinary institutions.

     The NEP has certain Digital Approaches, like:

Ø  An autonomous body, NETF (National Educational Technology Forum) will be formed to increase the efficiency of the education sector.

Ø  A new unit will be formed to serve the purpose of creating digital education resources including digital infrastructure, capacity building, and digital content.

Ø  Across all levels, the integration of technology will be initiated to usher in an improvement in classroom processes.

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